**Band (algebra) - Wikipedia**
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Band_(mathematics)

In mathematics, a band (also called idempotent semigroup) is a semigroup in which every element is idempotent (in other words equal to its own square). Bands were first studied and named by A. H. Clifford (1954); the lattice of varietiesof bands was described independently in the early 1970s by Biryukov, Fennemore and Gerhard. Semilattices, left-zero bands, right-zero bands, rectangular bands, normal bands, left-regular bands, right-regular bands and regular bands, specific subcla…

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